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Atty Ralph Sarmiento
  Constitutional Law Syllabus
University of Saint La Salle
College of Law
S.Y. 2021-2011


POLITICAL LAW
      Defined
            -  People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
            -  Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77




THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION
Nature of the Constitution
      Definition;
      Classification;
      Qualities and essential parts of a good written Constitution


Ratification / Political vs. Justiciable Question


Constitutional Construction
Self-executing provisions


Constitutional History
      Declaration of Martial Law
            Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183
     
      1973 Constitution
      1986 Snap Presidential Election
            -  Philippine Bar Association. v. Comelec, 140 SCRA 455
      People Power Revolt
            Proclamation No. 1, Feb. 25, 1986
            Proc. No. 3, Mar. 25, 1986
               -  Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986
               -  In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160
            Freedom Constitution


1987 Constitution
      -  In re: Letter of Reynato Puno, June 29, 1992, 210 SCRA
      Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution
            -  De Leon v. Esguerra, 153 SCRA 602
 


Amendment Process
      Amendment vs. Revision
      Procedure
            1. Proposal
                  a.  By Congress
                  b.  By a Constitutional Convention
                        Theories on Position of Constitutional Convention
                  c.  By the People thru Initiative
                        RA 6735
                             Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997
            2.  Ratification
                  Doctrine of Proper Submission
                       Tolentino v. Comelec, 41 SCRA 702
     
      Judicial Review of Amendments
            -  Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333
 


Power of Judicial Review
      Judicial Supremacy vs. Constitutional Supremacy
      Political vs. Justiciable Question
            Baker v. Carr, 396 US 186
            -  Nixon v. US, 506 US 224
            -  Sanidad v. Comelec, 73 SCRA 333
      Presumption of Constitutionality


Requisites of Judicial Review:


1.  Actual Case or Controversy
     
      Ripeness
     
      Mootness


2.  Proper Party
      Conventional Standing
      Representative Standing
      Jus Tertii standing
      Transcendental importance to the public
            -  Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436
            -  Kilosbayan v. Guingona, 232 SCRA 110
            -  Kilosbayan v. Morato, 246 SCRA 540
      Standing of members of Congress
            -  Philconsa v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
      Standing of Integrated Bar of the Philippines
            -  IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
      Standing of the Government to question its own laws
            -  People v. Vera, 65 Phil. 56
      Taxpayer’s Suits


3.  Question must be raised at the earliest possible opportunity


4.  Constitutional question must the very "lis mota" of the case
      Doctrine of Purposeful Hesitation
            Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994
      Functions of Judicial Review
      Effects of Declaration of Unconstitutionality
            Doctrine of Operative Fact
                  Republic v. CA, GR 79732, Nov. 8, 1993




CONCEPT OF STATE


1.  People
     
      Citizenship
      Distinguished from nationality
      Modes of Acquiring citizenship
      Citizens of the Philippines
            -  Djumantan v. Domingo, Jan. 30, 1995
      Election of Philippine citizenship
      Doctrine of implied election
      Natural-born citizens
      Dual citizenship & dual allegiance
      Res judicata in citizenship cases
      Doctrine of Indelible Allegiance
      Naturalization
            -  Republic v. De la Rosa, 232 SCRA 785
     
      Loss of citizenship
            -  By naturalization in a foreign country
                  -  Frivaldo v. Comelec, 174 SCRA 245
                  -  Labo v. Comelec, 176 SCRA 1
            -  By express renunciation or expatriation
                  -  Yu v. Defensor-Santiago, 169 SCRA 364
      Reacquisition of citizenship, RA 8171
            Retroactivity of Repatriation
                  -  Frivaldo v. Comelec, 257 SCRA 727, June 28, 1996
      Suffrage

2.  Territory


3.  Government
      Functions
            Constituent vs. Ministrant
            Laissez-faire vs. Welfare State
      Doctrine of Parens Patriae
            -  Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94
      Classification
            -  De Jure
            -  De Facto
            -  Lawyers League v. Aquino, GR 73748, May 22, 1986


4.  Sovereignty
      Effects of Change in sovereignty
            -  People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil. 887
            -  Macariola v. Asuncion, 114 SCRA 77
      Effects of Belligerent Occupation
      Doctrine of Jus Postliminium
      Dominium vs. Imperium
 


Doctrine of State Immunity
      Basis
            -  U.S.A. vs. Reyes, March 1, 1993
     
      Immunity of Foreign States & Diplomats
            Principle of par in parem non habet imperium
            Process of Suggestion
                  -  The Holy See v. RTC, GR 101949, Dec. 1, 1994
Determination of Immunity by the Department of Foreign Affairs
     
      Immunity of International Organizations and Agencies
            -  SEAFDEC v. NLRC, 241 SCRA 580
            -  Callado v. IRRI, 244 SCRA 210
            -  DFA v. NLRC, Sept. 18, 1996
      Immunity of Government Agencies
            Incorporated
                  Municipal Corporations
                        -  Municipality of San Fernando v. Judge Firme, 195 SCRA 692 
            Unincorporated
                  If principal function is governmental
                        -  Farolan v. CTA 217 SCRA 298
                  If proprietary  suable
     
      Suits against Public Officers
            -  City of Angeles v. CA, Aug. 28,1996
            -  Veterans Manpower v. CA, 214 SCRA 286
            -  Wylie v. Rarang, 209 SCRA 357
     
Consent to be sued
            Express Consent
                  -  Republic v. Feliciano, 148 SCRA 424
                  General Law
                        -  CA 327; PD 1445; Art. 2180; Act No. 3038
                  Special Law
                        -  Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311
            Implied Consent
                  When State commences litigation
                        -  Froilan v. Pan Oriental Shipping, Sept. 30, 1954
                  When State enters into a business contract
                        -  USA v. Ruiz, 136 SCRA 487
            Suability not outright liability
                  -  Meritt v. Gov't. of the Phil. Islands, 34 Phil. 311
                  -  Fontanilla v. Maliaman, 194 SCRA 486
            Consent to be sued does not include consent to execution
                  -  Republic v. Villasor, 54 SCRA 84
                  -  Municipality of San Miguel v. Fernandez, 130 SCRA 56
                  -  Municipality of Makati v. CA, 190 SCRA 206
     
      Immunity cannot be used to perpetrate an injustice on a citizen
            -  Ministerio v. CFI of Cebu, 40 SCRA 464




PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES
      Preamble
      Republicanism
            Manifestations
                  1.  Nemo est supra leges
                        -  Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil. 778
                  2.  Rule of majority
                  3.  Accountability of Public Officials
                  4.  Bill of Rights
                  5.  Legislature cannot pass irrepealable laws
                  6.  Separation of Powers
                        Principle of Blending of Powers
                        Principle of Checks and Balances
                              -  The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153
                              -  Bowsher v. Synar, 478 US 714
                              -  Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777
                  7.  Non-delegation of powers
                              -  Phil. Interisland Shipping Ass'n. v. CA, GR 100481, Jan. 22, 1997
                        Potestas delegata non delegare potest
                        Permissible Delegation
                              a.  Tariff Powers to the President
                              b.  Emergency Powers to the President
                                    -  First Emergency Powers cases, 84 Phil. 368
                                    -  Second Emergency Powers cases, 92 Phil. 603
                              c.  Delegation to the People
                              d.  Delegation to Local Government Units
                              e.  Delegation to the Administrative Bodies
                                    Power of Subordinate Legislation
                                          -  Miners Association v. Factoran, GR 98332, Jan. 16, 1995
                                    Principle of Subdelegation of Powers
                                    Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency
                        Tests for valid delegation
                              a.  Completeness Test
                              b.  Sufficient Standard Test
                                    -  Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659     
                                    -  De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294
                                    Legislative standard need not be expressed
                                          -  Hirabashi v. United States, 320 US 99
                                          -  Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
                  8.  State Immunity (supra)
                  9.  Election through popular will
      
Act of State
      Incorporation Clause
      Conflict between municipal law and international law
            -  Ichong v. Hernandez, 101 Phil. 115
      Civilian Supremacy
            -  IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
      Government to serve and protect the people
      People to defend the State
      Separation of Church and State
      Independent Foreign Policy
      Nuclear Free Philippines
      Just and dynamic social order
       
Social Justice
            -  Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726
      Respect for human dignity and human rights
      Fundamental Equality of men and women

      Promotion of health and ecology

            -  Oposa v. Factoran, GR 1010183, July 30, 1993
      Priority to education, science and technology
      Protection to labor
      Land Reform
            -  Ass'n. of Small Land Owners v. Sec. of Agrarian Reform, 175 SCRA 343
     
Regalian Doctrine
            -  Republic v. CA, CCP  Intervenor, GR 103882, Nov. 25, 1998
            -  Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000
            -  La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Assn. v. DENR Secretary, GR 127882, Jan. 27, 2004

      Inalienable Lands of the Public Domain
            -  Chavez v. PEA & AMARI, GR 133250, Nov. 11, 2003

      Independent People's organizations
      
Family and Youth
            -  Meyer v. Nebraska, 263 US 393
            -  Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 268 US 510
            -  Wisconsin v. Yoder, 40 LW 4476
            -  Cabanas v. Pilapil, 58 SCRA 94
       
Self-reliant and independent national economy
            -  Tañada v. Angara (GATT case), GR 118295, May 2, 1997
      Communication and information in nation-building
     
Autonomy of Local Governments
            Decentralization of Administration vs. decentralization of Power
                  -  Limbonas v. Mangelin, 170 SCRA 786
                  -  Basco v. PAGCOR, 197 SCRA 52

            Autonomous Region
                  -  Disomangcop v. DPWH Secretary, GR 149848, November 25, 2004

       Indigenous Cultural Communities
            -  Cruz v. DENR Secretary, G.R. No. 135385, December 6, 2000
      Honest public service and full public disclosure




LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
      Legislative power
            Initiative, referendum and Recall
                  -  Defensor-Santiago v. Comelec, GR 127325, March 19, 1997
                  Indirect Initiative
                        -  SBMA v. Comelec, Sept. 26, 1996
            Recall
                  -  Garcia v. Comelec, Oct. 5, 1993
                  Loss of confidence, a political question
                        -  Evardone v. Comelec, 204 SCRA 464, 472
      Bicameralism vs. Unicameralism
       
Senate (Composition; Qualifications; Term of office)
       
House of Representatives
            Composition (District Representatives; Party-list Representatives)
          
  Party-list Representatives
                  -  Veterans Federation Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 136781, October 6, 2000
                  -  Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001
            Apportionment of Legislative Districts
                  -  Baker v. Carr, 369 US 186
                  -  Mariano v. Comelec, 242 SCRA 211
                  -  Montejo v. Comelec, GR 118702, Mar. 19, 1995
                  Gerrymandering
                  Doctrine of Equal Representation
           
Qualifications
                  -  Marcos v. Comelec, 248 SCRA 300
                  -  Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995
                  Theory of legal impossibility
                  Natural-born
                        -  Bengson v. HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001
            Term of office
          
  Privileges
                  Freedom from Arrest
                  Parliamentary Immunity
                        -  Eastland v. US Servicemen's Fund, 421 US 491
                        -  Hutchinson v. Proxmire, 443 US 111
                        -  Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 714
            Disqualifications and Inhibitions
                  Effect of Imprisonment
                        -  People v. Jalosjos, G.R. Nos. 132875-76, February 3, 2000     
            Sessions; Adjournment; Officers
                  -  Santiago v. Guingona, G.R. No. 147589, June 26, 2001
            Quorum
                  -  Avelino v. Cuenco, 83 Phil. 17
            Rules of Proceedings
                  -  Arroyo v. De Venecia (Sin-taxes case), GR 127255, Aug. 14, 1997
            Discipline of members
                  Suspension vs. Preventive Suspension
                  -  Santiago v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 128055.  April 18, 2001
         
   Enrolled Bill Theory
                  -  Mabanag v. Lopez Vito, 78 Phil. 1
                  -  Casco Chemical v. Gimenez, 7 SCRA 347
                  Legislative Journal vs. Enrolled Bill
          
Electoral Tribunals
                  Composition
                        -  Bondoc v. Pineda, 201 SCRA 792
                        -  Abbas v. Senate Electoral Tribunal, 166 SCRA 651
                  Powers
                        -  Aquino v. Comelec, Sept. 18, 1995
                        -  Sampayan v. Daza, 213 SCRA 807
                  Jurisdiction over Proclamation Controversy
                        -  Caruncho v. Comelec, G.R. No. 135996, September 30, 1999
          
  Commission on Appointments
                  Composition
                        -  Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789
                  Powers
                        -  Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549
     
Powers of Congress
            General Legislative Power
                  Limitations
                        Substantive Limitations
                        Procedural Limitations
                              One Bill, one subject
                                    -  Guzman v. Comelec, G.R. No. 129118, July 19, 2000
                              Sufficiency of Title
                                    -  Phil. Judges Association v. Prado, GR 105371, Nov. 11, 1993
                                    -  Chongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
                              Bills that must originate exclusively from the House
                                    -  Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, GR 115455, Aug. 25, 1994
                                    -  Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, Oct. 30, 1995
                              Three readings on separate days
                              Bicameral Conference Committee
            
      Legislative Process
                        Approval of Bills
                              Presidential veto
                              Pocket veto
                              Item veto
                                    -  Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133
                              Legislative veto; One-House Veto
                                    -  Immigration Service v. Chadha, 462 US 919, 77 L.Ed.2d 317
                                    -  Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
        
    Power of the Purse
                  Implied limitations on appropriation measure
                        -  Guingona v. Carague, 196 SCRA 221
                  Constitutional limitations and rules
                        Riders
                        Sub rosa appropriation
                        Prohibition against transfer of appropriation
                              -  Phil. Constitution Association v. Enriquez, 235 SCRA 506
            Power of Taxation
                  -  McCulloch v. Maryland, 17 US (4 Wheat, 316)
            Power of Legislative Investigation
                  -  Senate v. Ermita (E.O.464), G.R. No. 169777
                  -  Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee, 203 SCRA 767
            Power to Punish contempt
                  -  Arnault v. Nazareno, 87 Phil. 29
                  -  Arnault v. Balagtas, 97 Phil. 358
            Power to declare existence of state of war
                  -  The Prize cases, 67 US 635, 17 L.Ed. 459
                  -  Mora v. McNamara, 389 US 934, 19 L.Ed.2d 287




EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
      President and Vice-President
            Qualifications
      Natural-born Citizen
            -  Tecson v. Comelec, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
            Election
                  Congress as canvassing board
                  Supreme Court as Electoral Tribunal
                        -  Defensor-Santiago v. Ramos, PET Case no. 001, Feb. 13, 1996
            Term of office
            Privileges
                  Official residence
                  Salary
                  Presidential Immunity
                        -  In re: Bermudez, 145 SCRA 160
                        -  Beltran v. Makasiar, 167 SCRA 393
                        -  US v. Nixon, 418 US 683, 41 L.Ed.2d 1039
                        -  Nixon v. Fitzgerald, 457 US 731
                        -  Clinton v. Jones, 520 US 681, May 27, 1997
                        -  Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
                        -  Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001
            Prohibitions and inhibitions
            Rules on Succession
                  Vacancy at beginning of term
                  Vacancy during the term
                  Temporary Disability
            Removal of the President
                  - Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
                  - Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001
     
            Powers
                  Executive Power
                        -  Planas v. Gil, 67 Phil. 62
                        -  Myers, Administratrix v. United States, 272 US 52
                  Legislative Powers
                        -  Municipality of San Juan v. CA, Sept. 29, 1997
                        -  Ople v. Torres, GR 127685, July 23, 1998
                  Residual Powers
                        -  Marcos v. Manglapus, 177 SCRA 668
                  Power to Determine National Policy
                        -  The Steel Seizure case, 343 US 579, 96 L.Ed. 1153
                  Prosecution of Crimes
                        -  Webb v. De Leon, 247 SCRA 652
                  Creation of Preparatory Committee on Constitutional Reforms
                        -  Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835, August 14, 2000
                 
Appointing Power
                        Discretionary power
                              -  Flores v. Drilon, GR 104732, June 22, 1993
                              -  Gordon v. Judge Santos, CA-GR Sp No. 48339, Aug. 21, 1998
                              -  Gordon v. CA, GR 134900, Sept. 1, 1998 
                              -  Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327
                        Classes of Appointment
                              -  Gaminde v. COA, G.R. No. 140335, December 13, 2000
                        Appointments subject to confirmation of Commission on Appointments
                              -  Sarmiento v. Mison, 156 SCRA 549
                              -  Manalo v. Sistoza, GR 107369, Aug. 11, 1999
                        Limitations on the Appointment Power
                        Power of Removal
     
                 
Power of Control
                        Control vs. Supervision
                              -  Drilon v. Lim, GR 112497, Aug. 4, 1994
                        Alter-ego Principle or Doctrine of Qualified Political Agency
                              -  Carpio v. Executive Secretary, Feb. 14, 1992
                        The Executive Secretary
                              -  Lacson-Magallanes v. Pano, 21 SCRA 895
                
  Military Powers
                        Commander-in-chief clause
                              -  Ex Parte Milligan, 71 US 2
                              -  David v. Macapagal-Arroyo (PP1017), GR 171396, May 3, 2006
                              -  Aquino v. Military Commission No. 2, 63 SCRA 546
                              -  Olaguer v. Military Commission No. 34, 150 SCRA 144
                              -  Carpio v. Executive Secretary, supra
                       
                        Calling Out the Armed Forces
                              -  IBP v. Zamora, G.R. No. 141284, August 15, 2000
                       
                        Declaration of State of Rebellion
                              -  Lacson v. Perez, G.R. No. 147780, May 10, 2001
                        Declaration of martial law
                              -  Aquino v. Enrile, 59 SCRA 183
                       
                        Suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus
                              -  Barcelon v. Baker, 5 Phil. 87
                              -  Montenegro v. Castañeda, 91 Phil. 882
                              -  Lansang v. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448
                              -  Garcia-Padilla v. Enrile, 121 SCRA 472
                 
Pardoning Power
                        -  People v. Salle, 250 SCRA 581, Dec. 4, 1995
                        -  Monsanto v. Factoran, 170 SCRA 190
                        -  Garcia v. Chairman, COA, 226 SCRA 356
                        Pardon vs. Amnesty
                  Diplomatic Power
                        -  Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 US 654
                        Treaties vs. Executive Agreements
                  Power to Impound
                        -  Philconsa v. Enriquez, Aug. 19, 1994




JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT
      Judicial Power
            Expanded jurisdiction
                  Effect on the political question doctrine
            Jurisdiction
                  -  Diaz v. CA, Dec. 5, 1994
                  -  First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA, Oct. 7, 1994
      Constitutional Safeguards to insure independence of the Judiciary
            Justices/judges may not be designated to any agency performing non-judicial functions
            Fiscal Autonomy
      Power of Judicial Review
      Appointment to the Judiciary
            Procedure for Appointment
            Judicial and Bar Council
     
      Supreme Court
            Composition
            En Banc & Division cases
                  Fortich v. Corona, G.R. No. 131457, August 19, 1999
             
Powers
                  Supervision over the Judiciary
                        -  Dolalas v. Office of the Ombudsman, Dec. 24, 1996
                  Rule-making powers
                        -  Maniago v. CA, 253 SCRA 674
                  Mandatory Review of Death Penalty Cases
                        -  People v. Esparas, GR 120034, Aug. 20, 1996
            Writ of Amparo
            Equipoise Doctrine
            Decisions of the Court
                  -  Nicos Industrial Corp. v. CA, 206 SCRA 127
                  -  Prudential Bank v. Castro, 158 SCRA 646 
            Power to control execution of decision
                  -  Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice, GR 132601, Jan. 19, 1999
            
            Tenure of Justices/Judges
                  -  De la Llana v. Alba, 112 SCRA 294
            Removal and Discipline
                  -  Maceda v. Ombudsman, GR 102781, Apr. 22, 1993
                  -  People v. Gacott, 246 SCRA 52
            Salaries
                  -  Perfecto v. Meer, 85 Phil. 552
                  -  Endencia v. David, 93 Phil. 696
                  -  Nitafan v. Commisioner of Internal Revenue, 152 SCRA 284




INDEPENDENT CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION
      Safeguards to insure the independence of the Commissions
            Prohibition on appointment in an acting capacity
                  -  Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358
      Disqualifications and Inhibitions
      Decisions -  Certiorari to the Supreme Court
            -  Galido v. Comelec, Jan. 18, 1991
            -  Reyes v. RTC, 244 SCRA 41
            -  Garces v. CA, July 17, 1996
      SC Revised Admin. Cir. 1-95


1.  Civil Service Commission
      Scope of the Civil Service
            -  DOH v. NLRC, 251 SCRA 700
      Approval of appointments
            -  Luego v. Civil Service Commission, 143 SCRA 327
            -  Ramonte v. CSC, 244 SCRA 498


2.  Commission on Elections
      En Banc and Division cases
            -  Sarmiento v. Comelec, 212 SCRA 307
      Powers and Functions
            -  Relampagos v. Cumba, 243 SCRA 690
            -  Loong v. Comelec, GR 133676, Apr. 14, 1999
      Exclusive Original Jurisdiction and Appellate Jurisdiction
            -  Guieb v. Fontanilla, 247 SCRA 348, Aug. 14, 1995
      Special Registration of New Voters
            -  Akbayan Youth v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147066, March 26, 2001


3.  Commission on Audit
            -  Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. COA, GR 101976, Jan. 29, 1993




ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC OFFICERS
      Impeachment
            Impeachable Officers
            Grounds for Impeachment
            Procedure
                  -  Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 263
            Impeachment and Criminal Prosecution
                  -  Estrada v. Arroyo, G.R. No. 146738, March 2, 2001
                  -  Decision on Motion for Reconsideration, April 3, 2001
       
Sandiganbayan
            Jurisdiction
                  -  Lacson v. Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 128096, January 20, 1999
       
Ombudsman
            Supervision and control
                  -  Acop v. Office of the Ombudsman, 248 SCRA 566
            Prosecutorial Powers
                  -  Camanag v. Guerrero, GR 121017, Feb. 17, 1997
            Power to issue subpoena;  Form of complaint
                  -  Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 266
            Power to Investigate Administrative Charges
                  Concurrent with the Office of the President
                        -  Hagad v. Dadole, 241 SCRA 242
                  Concurrent with the DOJ
                        -  Honasan v. DOJ Panel of Investigating Prosecutors, GR 159747, Apr. 13, 2004
            Power to investigate cases of ill-gotten wealth after Feb. 25, 1996
                  -  Republic v. Sandiganbayan, Sept. 24, 1994
            Ombudsman for the Military
                  -  Agbay v. Deputy Ombudsman for the Military, G.R. No. 134503, July 2, 1999
                 
       Special Prosecutor
            -  Zaldivar v. Gonzales, 160 SCRA 843
    
  Commission on Human Rights
            Powers and Functions of the Commission
                  -  Cariño v. CHR, GR 96681, Dec. 2, 1991
            Civil Rights vs. Political Rights
                  -  Simon v. CHR, 229 SCRA 117, Jan. 5, 1994
           Fiscal Autonomy
                  -  CHR Employees Assn. v. CHR, GR No. 155336, Nov. 25, 2004
    
  Presidential Commission on Good Government
            -  Chavez v. PCGG, GR 130716, Dec. 9, 1998
            -  Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797
            -  Republic v. Sandiganbayan, 258 SCRA 685
            -  Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, 244 S 152
           
            Sequestration
                  -  Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 106244, Jan. 22, 1997     
           
            Order signed by only one commissioner
                  -  Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR 113420, Mar. 7, 1997
            Imprescriptibility of Right of State to Recover Ill-gotten Wealth
                  - Presidential Committee on Behest Loans v. Desierto, G.R. No. 130140, October 25, 1999








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